Wednesday, December 16, 2015

Ka University thar

Chenna ngailoh ram fan thu ka han ziak teh ang, chu hmun chu ka chenna mai nilo ka hnathawhna hmun a nih tak avangin, ka hai haipawr law law ang e. University Of Kalyani tih a ni a. Kalyani tih hi thil tha ti, hmasawnna lam a kawk deuh awm e. Kum 1960 a din niin  Bengal University neihah chuan campus nei zau ber dawttu a ni a. Faculty of Arts and Commerce-ah hian Department 25 an awm a, Faculty of educationah 2, Faculty of Science-ah Department 26, Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Management-ah Department 20 an awm a, Centre 13 a nei bawk. Zirlai naupang awmna tur hi Hostel 10 a awm a, he university hnuaiah hian College 44 lai mai an in affiliate bawk.

Monday, November 16, 2015

Alcohol and MNF (excerpt from my article understanding Power)

Mesmerised with the talk of Mizo nationalism and champion of the people as claimed by the MNF, the people expected the ministry to embark on a journey of the fulfilment of their hope and aspirations. However, the new ministry had to sail on a raft tide of new political order. MNF acted as a symbol of Mizo sub-nationalism and their political ideology based on self determination (Nunthara 1996:218). This is what built the structures of power in MNF regime. With the passage of time, their leader Laldenga started to face a problem regarding the liquor permit and on internal conflict within the party. On liquor issue, the MNF while underground vehemently fought against the country liquor and IMFL (Indian Made Foreign Liquor). The popular opinion during the time was that the social evils which were rampant in the days were caused by consumption of liquor as access to it was easily made available. At that time the Church was totally against the permit of Liquor. The MNF who came to power were expected to restrict or prohibit Liquor permit which was permitted during the Congress (I) regime in 1985. The war waged by the MNF against liquor from below the ground was still fresh in the minds of the public. The Chief Minister Laldenga publicly announced that he would consent public opinion on the policy to be adopted on the issue of permit for sale of liquor. On 16th April 1988 prominent social leaders, Village Council members of Aizawl town, representatives of the Young Mizo Association (YMA) and Mizo Hmeichhia Insuihkhawm Pawl (MHIP) were invited to discuss in the issue of Liquor at Vanapa Hall. The invitees attended with the expectation that Zu (liquor) will be restricted by any means. On the contrary, the Chief Minister stressed on the need to obey law and order. The meeting resulted in general frustration and grumbling reaction of the audience, unhappy with Laldenga the crowd departed.

The MNF circulated a Letter to the Parents No V of 1988. The pamphlet showed that the MNF had collected views and opinions from some 3000 people with regard to the issue of permit for the sale of liquor. Their survey showed that majority of the people wanted a rigorous control be exercised on liquor instead of resorting to its prohibition. The church leaders met the Chief Minister in relation to the question on liquor and the government accused the church leaders on encroaching upon the jurisdiction of the Government. The ideology for which they were championed “For God and the Country” started deteriorating with the authoritarian attitude of their leader. The church leaders having left with no option gave up negotiating on the issue, leaving the matters to the will of God. When the MNF Ministry fell the Church leader characterised the event as “an answer by God to the prayers of the Church on the liquor issue”.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

A thar leh thin...

Thlasik rim a lo nam a, khua a thiang thin khawp mai. Ka ngaihtuahna-ah ilo lang a, hun kha leh chen chen kha damchhung kanlo chhiar chho a nia tiraw! Hun hi alo vei chak em, kei a hun erawh kan hmanlai nun kha ala ni e. Zing takah ka phone ri ral ral kha mut chhuak takin ka ban a, i aw ngei a nih ka hriat khan ka lawm a, min kai thotu ka haw phal lo che. Enge kan tih dawn kha... thil enge maw ka hmuh dawn che tiin min tiam a nih kha. Tha tho takin ka tho a, ka in tihfai hnuin hun reilote chhungin ka han hmuta che a. Ka mithmuh a la mawi ber mai ka hmu a, ka ta i ni tih kha ka dawn thiamlo a, awmze awmlo takin ka nui ringawt mai a ni. Ni e, kha mi ni a kan tuanna zawng zawng kha hman ni chu ka han fang leh a sin. Thingbuk hnuai a kan thutna hmunte kha a lo la danglam miahlo... amaherawhchu a kal a chu keimah chauh ka ni ta sia. Hlim taka min hmuh tak lehkhabu kha ka keng a, i thuziakte a ngai ngaiin a lo la awm a, mahse nangzawng i awm tawh silo. Ralkhata vaiho tha tholo taka kal dem demte tih chauhlo chu an awm tawh silo. Thihna kut rawng tak maiin a man bik che hi ka run tak zet a. Ka mal lutuk hi i ngai ngam bik em ni le? 
U-ama lo thleng tur hi ka phurlo, ka chaklo, ka zuamlo takzet a ni. Hun kha han herlet thei ila, hlim taka kan lenlai nite kha ka her tir ang a, kal tawhlo tawp turin ka han chelh tur a. Nimahse hun leh ni-ah te hian thu kan nei der silo a, tiraw...

Wednesday, September 9, 2015

BOOK REVIEW: Lai Chieftainship and Its Impact in Politics

Lai Chieftainship and Its Impact in Politics
Author: Dr. Jangkhongam Doungel
Publisher: Balaji Publications, Delhi
Pages: 312 
Price: 995

Here is the book that will illuminate the whole of our understanding to a Political history of Mizo in India's Northeast. This book is much more than the usual book of history and Polity. It serves as a great inspiration and support for scholars to take up this new theme for reconstruction of Mizo History and Polity. Of all the books I have read it has taken me the longest to finish reading! The book gives a description of the Lai chiefs and how they have influenced politics. It also contains a rare picture of the greatest of the Lai chiefs, Lalluaia Chinzah. The book is consisting of merely 312 pages, laid down in 7 chapters, contains a preface, acknowledgements and 4 maps to aid the reader in understanding the contents of the book. One notices the amount of research work done from the explanation of abbreviated terms, glossary and pictures of people the author interviewed, placed towards the end of the book.

Although a profile of the author has been given on the cover of the book, I feel that the book itself gives a true reflection of the thoughts and personality of the author. As readers of Soren Kierkegaard's works often find themselves identifying with the characters of the books. The tone and language used by the author reflect how much he has immersed himself into the events in the book and how they would relate to the readers. It is common knowledge among researchers how rare it is to find a good source for materials. Upon looking at the references of the book, one notices that the author obtained nearly five pages worth of primary sources. This is highly commendable since it is a shows a mark of how trustworthy the book is. There are also several secondary sources (not the ones written by the English but recent ones written by Mizo authors). Unlike the normative fashion of replicating the documentation of prominent historians and others, this book is expected to hold its originality. This expectation is fulfilled from the first chapter.

The first chapter being an introductory to the main body and methodology of the entire book, it is written in an orderly fashion, tracing generally, the origins of the Lai people. Their migration from the south of China towards the west, settlements around the Chindwind river circa 750 AD and their subsequent migration from there towards the west of Chin Hills. Their settlements in Chin hills marks an important era for the Lai history. For it was here that an organised record of the chiefs was established. The author mentions the might of the Lai people. Their conquests include the Chin Hills, Lushai Hills (Mizoram), Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bagha and Silchar, the plains of Burma and southern parts of Manipur. The exemplary administration practiced by the chiefs gives a clear picture of the lives and identity of the tribe.

              The literary review of the text is well established, the works on the history of the Lai people till date have been explored with aims of including topics not yet elaborated or included in the past. The author is careful in providing correct terms and categories given to places and personal works of others and has placed correct terms of the incorrect ones given by the British in the past in brackets. This serves as an easy and helpful tool for researchers in future. From the Post colonial aspect, this book serves as an authentic text.

The second chapter shows the emergence of the chiefs among the Lai tribes as contributed by Pu Henmanga. The earliest evidence pointing to Simpi village (1400-1500 AD) consisting of 800 houses at the time and from where the first Lai chief emerged.  Though the hows and the whys of the establishment of the establishment of the village are not clear, it is clear however that a great chief ruled over the village. From this place, the people then migrated to Sunthla village and Lailun puk and then to Falam, Halka, Thantlang and the various villages in the Chin Hills. The villages where they ruled include Chinzah, Zathang, Khenglawt, Hlawnchhing, Hlawncheu and Hranglungchung. Besides these the descendants of the Lai tribe, the origins of the Fanai tribes have also been mentioned. 

The account of how the Lai chiefs migrated to the west is very interesting and has been mentioned in the book. The Lai chiefs were visionaries and it was their aim to expand their rule so that their future descendants would be provided with vast lands and, to glorify the name of their tribe.

This chapter highlights the existence of Chinzah chiefs who did not belong to the Khuafo group, were invited by the Mara people to rule over them. The Mara people called them ‘Chozah'. The Hlawnchhing chiefs of Thantlang were also invited by the Mara people to rule over them. They were given the tribe name of ‘Hlychho' by the Mara and welcomed to live among them. This shows the open-mindedness of the Mara people, their ability to recognize the leadership qualities of a person and willingness to accept them as rulers irrespective of their tribal origins.

The third chapter gives an account of the position of the chiefs. The good relations maintained between the people and the chiefs, the trust placed upon the chief by the tribe, how the tribe wanted the descendants of the chiefs to rule thus adopting the ‘hereditary system'. Hence, the descendants of the chiefs took upon themselves to not only uphold the status of royalty but also seek to maintain the respectful mannerisms fit for royalty. When I first read the book, I might have felt the author exaggerating in certain parts, however as I progressed along, I began to see and accept the light from which he has written the text. He calls the manner in which the chiefs ruled "Chiefdom". This is quite similar to the medieval structure in Europe during the same period in history. The chiefs collected taxes from the other chiefs under their protection and would defend them in times of war. How the Lai chiefs who came from the Chin Hills made several tribes succumb to their power, rule over them and form of administration is noteworthy and interesting. This book provides an above/approach view as opposed to a Lusei Centric view of history, thus, creating a fresh and clear picture of our history. This is again possible due to the methodology employed, reliable and organised manner in which the author gathered his sources.

The fourth chapter relates the coming of the British and how they influenced the status of the Lai chiefs. Three important points are seen here. The origins of the Lai chiefs, how the coming of the British the Lai chiefs were overthrown to the status of commoners and the account of a famed Chinzah chief Dokulha Chinzah. The author has intertwined these three points but instead of leading to the confusion it provides a clearer picture.

Initially, the British government wanted avoid meddling in the business of the hill people. However since killings of their workers began to occur frequently, punishment for the crimes and to serve as an example to other tribes they established their dominion over them. The various Zohnahthlak tribes opposed and strove to resist the dominion. Amidst this resistance, the struggle of a single man Dokulha Chinzah is noteworthy to be placed in the ranks of the other freedom fighters struggle for Indian independence or Colonial resistance.

Dokulha Chinzah was the much-respected chief of Fungkah village accused of killing Muslim man. His resourcefulness and the loyalty to his subjects are worth remembering. Whilst being imprisoned at the jail, he learnt Bengali and Hindi and even wrote a letter to the British authorities to protest against the accusations thrown at him. Another famous correspondence with the British authorities is the letter written by chief Khamliana to the ‘Kumpinu'. With certainty one can claim Dokulha to be an intelligent man and as expected he has been mentioned on the 84th page of the Indian Martyrs book released by the Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Government of India.

After the British dominion, the decentralisation policy of Chieftainship was established, and because of this, commoners began to gain the status of royalty. These new chiefs were- Tlangchhan, Aineh, Fanchun, Nutlai and Tlanglau. However of these, Tlanglau hnamte was previously given permission to rule in certain hill areas by their chief Vanhnuaihlira Hlawncheu, as he along with his people left their land to expand their conquest in lands as far as Bangladesh.

In the fifth chapter the author writes about the end of chieftainship and alongside traces the fate of the Lai people. The British felt that the Lai and Lusei people shared some common features regarding their history and culture and thus to serve their convenience often clubbed them together in matters of different affairs. Due to this the Chin Hills Regulation 1896 was implemented on both the Lushai Hills and Chin Hills. However, after the British left India, the Chin Hills came under the jurisdiction of Burma and Lushai Hills under the Indian Union. The British observed that the Zohnathlak hill people were different and thus excluded them often from the various administrative and political reforms. In the years between 1937 to 1947, these areas were declared Excluded Areas and the Inner Line Regulation was implemented for the Lushai Hills on 28th August 1930. These two laws enabled the Hills to be an exclusive area where outside people could not gain easy access to, thus providing protective measures from assimilation from the people inhabiting the plain areas. The author also points out that if such measures had not been taken, they're fate would be similar to that of the tribal people of Tripura who have now become a minority in their own state.

To cut the long story short, the Zohnahthlak people gradually became educated. A desire to end the reign of chiefs and establish a government formed by the people was a rising sentiment. This brought about the founding of the Mizo Union on 9th April, 1946 with permission granted by MacDonald, the superintendent of Lushai Hills. Despite the internal struggle for leadership within the Mizo Union, they shared a common interest which was, ending the reign of chieftainship. This in fact became the slogan during election. To counter the Mizo Union and their policy, another party emerged, the United Mizo Freedom Movement (UMFO) in 1947.The chiefs in hopes of regaining their rule and position sided with the UMFO. They tried their upmost to win the hearts of leaders and the common people. At the end, the chieftainship of Mizo chiefs was ended in the year 1954 and in the Lushai Autonomous district Council on 1st April 1955 and in the Pawi-Lakher regional Area on 15th April, 1956. Thus, a long rule by the chiefs was replaced by Village Council.

A careful reading of the book unravels how the descendants of the chiefs continued to take a keen interest in the politics of the people. As advised by LL Peters who replaced MacDonald, the Paw-Lakher Tribal Union (P.L.T.U) was founded. The hard work and perseverance of the leaders were rewarded with the formation of the Pawi-Lakher Regional Council in 1953, a year after the formation of the Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council (1952).

The sixth chapter tells us that despite being stripped of their titles, the power and influence of the chiefs did not change much. The chapter also mentions several successful Lai politicians. The author has included excerpts of his interview with these noteworthy politicians offering the reader a glimpse of their ideas and thoughts. By having the ownership of the land, the chiefs were highly concerned in matter of progress and development of the land. Their descendants are still considered to be wise in several matters. Amazingly, even after the abolition of titles, the people still included them in the workings of the government. This is one of the several points where the Lai tribes differ from the Lusei tribes. However this is not unexpected as the descendants of the Lai chiefs were one of the early educated individuals. This is seen from the list of names of high ranking officials listed in the book. Not all the outcomes of the change in administration were positive. Under the Land Revenue Department, individual ownership of lands was enabled. Those who had money could acquire vast areas of land. Those who were poor or did not have any authority were often not in possession of land. As a consequence the land suffered and it became a responsibility for the N.G.O's to protect the land. The people of the tribe continued to prefer the descendants of the chiefs to become members of the village council or District council.

This book has brought several thoughts to my minds such as the similarity of the dynastic politics of the mainstream India and ‘Lalchhungkua' of Mizoram, will this pattern be conducive for the wellbeing of future generations. This book also gives detail of the origins of tribal politics and the direction it is taking.

Just like any other book, this book is not beyond criticism. Careful reading and analyses brings to mind some criticism. Misprinting and repetition of same points have confused me regarding some matters mentioned. The English language is simple and research standard is high. The book encompasses the qualities of hard work, perseverance. I also observe that the author maintains objectivity. The book has proven to be a true treasure for in the history of Zohnathlak in general and Lai in particular.

Monday, June 29, 2015

Isua neih ka duh zawk!

Delhi khawpui lum-uap-churh mai-ah chuan chawei pahin Times Now TV Channel-a Arnab Goswami leh party spoke personte in hnial lai chu ka thlir reng a. Kan ram hruaitute chu Fake degree nei-ah an inpuh tawna, chumai a nilo eiruk avanga hmun dang a zin bo theilo tura an tih Lalit Modi zin avangin zin phalna petu kan External Affairs minister theihtawp a beih a ni bawk. Chutih laiin channel dangah chuan America Supreme court chuan ram pumpui-ah neih in angte inneih a phalsak thu an puang uai uai bawk a. Whatsapp lamah chuan kan ram zimtea nun beidawng thalai inthah thute ka hmu bawk a. Ka chanchin hriat chuan min barakhaih hlawm hle a, "Khawvel hi a buai ve ngawt mai!" tih ngawt ka ngaihtuah a.

Ni e, hringnun kawng chhuk chho-ah hian sum, ropuina, hmingthanna te hian min va ti buai nasa em. A ban pha a piangte'n kumkhaw hlimnan ang hmang silo. Kan dai vekte hian a hnu-ah kan nun a vaw let a, duhthlanna siam thiamlote chu nataka hliamin kan awm thin. Pathian hian min hmangaih em em a, hetiang ngawt kan nun kan daibuak hi a phal ka ringlo. Khawvela kan nawmna tur a kan beisei sum leh paite hi nei tam em em mah ila, mihlim ber kan ni chuanglo a, pe chhuak hnem a piang an hlim mai thin. Kan damchhung atan chauh a ni a, hrisel loh phei chuan neih am chuan kawngro a su em em lutuklo a, kan hlimpui zo chuanglo. Sum neih mahila inchhungkhur a nawm siloh chuan awmzia a awm lo bawk, sum nei tam mah ila kan ngaihzawng leh kawppuite nen kan inrem chuan siloh chuan nun nuamlo tak a ni tho. Nulat tlangvalna lamah theihtawpin tlan mah ila reilote-ah a sawhkhawk alang a, a nuam ziktluak silo. Khawvel-a kan damchhan, kan nihna sawifiahna ber tur chu Isua Krista-ah hian a ni. Amaherawhchu Ani kan neih avang hian kan harsatna leh mangannate kha a lo bo ta duak pawh a ni lemlo a, nun dan min zirtir zawk a ni. Kan nun a thil tum hi hausa takleh hlim taka awm tir hi a ni lem chuanglo a, chatuan nun nei tura min hruaina kawng a, Amah kan lo an theih nan Thianghlimna kawng a min siam chhoh zel hi a tum a ni zawk. Thenkhat chuan sumdawng rilru deuh hian Isua an bel thin, he khawvel a hausak a min siamte, hlawhtling taka min siamte hi a tum a ni lemlo a, chatuan nunna kan neih theih nan Amah nitin min hnaih tir zel hi a tum a ni zawk.

Chuvang chuan duhthlanna dik tak hi thlangin chatuan a kan chan tur hi thlir zawk ila, sum leh pai leh hmingthannate hi chu kan dah pawimawh lo zawk ang. Heng zawng zawng dam chhung ropuina lem ai chuan Isua neih ka duh zawk i ti theuh ang. Damchhan tha tak kan nei theuh si a.

Friday, June 12, 2015


                                                                                      Malsawmdawngliana Lailung

He lehkhabu hi awm khauh hauh si lo, ka lehkhabu chhiar tawh-ah chuan ka chai rei ber a ni! He lehkhabu ngei mai hi ka mutpui a, ka thutpui a, ka teipui chiam bawk, buaipui tham a ni takzet. A chang chuan ngaihtuahna tam tak min neih tir zui a, chumai a ni hleinem, mumang ramah min um zui zel bawk nia! Mihring te lo hlut zia leh hnam a din kan nih hlutzia min hriatnawn tir a, ka keu nawn sek mai a ni. 2014 khan Donbosco hnuaiah NEC tumin “Minorities History and Culture in Northeast India” tih Project tiin ‘Lai Culture’ zirin kar engemaw zat lai mai Research team hruaiin Lawngtlai leh Saiha lamah kan va thang a, chuta ka rualawhna chu “Laifate hian chanchin ziahna an la nei tam lo hle mai saptawnga ziak lek phei chu a beitham hle a, hmanhmawh taka neih a tul” tih kha a ni. Kan History leh Culture te hi vawnhim nachang kan hriat loh chuan hnam ropui taka min dintu lakah kan mawhphurhna kan hlenlo a ni ang. Heng vawnhim leh dahthat a, chhiar nawn fo hi kan hnam darthlalang, hnam dangte min enna tur leh keimahni ngei pawh kan in ennawn fo na tur a ni. Laifate tan a rotling tur Prof. Doungela’n a han sualchhuak (a ziah chhung rei leh ngun em avangin) hi lawmna tur a va tam em.

            Lai lalte chanchin leh Politics a nghawng dan zirna a ni bawk a chhiar ti chakawm turin Lalluaia Chinzah, Lai lal zing a ropui ber pakhat chuan a kawmah hian min nghak van mai a, chhiar a ti phurawm hle. A bu pumpui hi phek 312 a ni a, bung sarih-ah a then sawm a. Heng bakah hian kamkeuna (Preface), lawmthusawina (Acknowledgement) mumal tak te, a bu chhung thu chhiar a ngaihtuahna a cham tur Map 4 lai mai a dah bawk a. Research work tha tak a nih lan theih nan Lamtawi (Abbreviations) hrilhfiahna te, Saptawng nilo thu hman sawifiahna (Glossary) leh a interview mi thenkhat thlalak leh thlalak dangte a hnunglamah rem takin a a tlar thla diat bawk. He lehkhabu chhutu hi Balaji Publications, Delhi a mi te an ni a, a man pawh Rs. 995/- man a ni. Chuti a nih chuan phek khat hi Rs. 3 paisa 18 vel a ni ang. International Standard Book Number (ISBN) a chuang vang mai a, hei hi a awmzia ber chu he lehkhabu hian helai mai nilo British Library thlengin a fang dawn tih hi a ni. Chuti a nih chuan Laifate chanchin hian a va dengthui dawn em, lawmna chang hre tan chuan lawm veng vengna tur a ni.

A ziaktu chanchin lehkhabu kawm hnung chhungah a in ziak ngei mai a, kei erawh chuan a lehkhabu ziahah hian a nihna chu a lang chiang zawk mahin ka hria. Mithiam Soren Kierkiegard an thuziah chhiar tu te’n a chungchang ziahna an chhiarin a tawpah an mahni chanchin ziahna a ni tih an hrechhuak a, tih te pawh kha ka hrechhuak lawi a. He lehkhabu ziaktu pawh hian a tawngkauchheh hman danah amah aiin a thuziah leh a chhiartute a ngaipawimawh hle tih a hriat theih. Research ti tawh te chuan kan ziahna tur source neih harsatzia hi kan hre theuhawm e. A source en hian Primary sources phek nga chuang list a nei a, hei hi thil mak deuh a ni. Research methodology-ah chuan First hand information/sources (Primary sources) neih that hi lehkhabu rinawm leh rinawmloh tehna ber pakhat a ni. Secondary sources (sap ho in min ziah sak leh a hunlai nilo tunhnu a ziah lehkhabu te) tam tak a tlar bawk a. Tunlai research thenkhat mi ngaihdan ngai bawk lakkhawmna (Documentation) ngawt ai chuan idea originality nei tur a he lehkhabu ngaih a ni. Chu chhanna chu chapter khatna-ah hian mumal takin kan hmu nghal a ni.

Bung khatna-ah hian a lehkhabu ruangam tur leh a ziahdan (methodology) te sih hmawr hmuh kan ni a. Laifa te tobul a tlangpui a rawn ziak a, China chhim atanga rawn thlang tla, Chindwind luipui kam a 750 AD vel a cheng tawh leh chumi hnu a Chin Hills a thlang tla ta zelin a rawn tarlang a ni. Chin Hills an awm lai hi Lai history-ah chuan hun/hmun chhinchhiah tlak tak a ni a. A chhan ber chu Lal mumal taka an neih record awmna nih vang a ni. Laifate ropui zia a ziak lang hlek bawk a. An lalna ram chuan Chin Hills mai ni lo, Lushai Hills (Mizoram), Chittagong Hill Tract te, Baga leh Silchar te, Burma phaizawl leh Manipur chhim lam thleng a a huam thu a sawi bawk. A bikin lalte in relbawlna ropui leh inkhai diat thlap mai chu hnam identity sawifiah tu leh khaikhawm bertu a ni. Lehkhabu lo ziak tawh te thlirna (Literary review) fumfe tak a nei bawk a, Laifate chanchin lo ziah tawhna leh a ziaktu te’n an hrilhfiah dan te tlangpuiin a hrut chhuak a, chuta an la ziah tam loh leh hmaih te thlirna tlang hran atanga thlir chu he lehkhabu in a tum ber pakhat a ni. A ziaktu hi terms and categories kan tih mai hmun hming leh thumal ziah kawngah a fimkhur em em a. Ziaktu hmasa a bikin British ho thuziaha thumal hman dik lo kha dik takin a rawn ziak chhuak a, sapho lo hman tawh te bracket-ah a ziak zel bawk a. Hei hian research la ti duh tan kawng awlsam a siam a, history ziah belhchiandawl (authentic) tak a nih tir bawk a ni. Post Colonial reading atanga thlir phei chuan he lehkhabu hi sang tak a ni. Chapter khat chhiar hian lehkhabu tlangpui a hriat nghal vek theih a, a ziaktu hian eng tarmit nge a bun tih pawh awlsam takin a hriat zui theih bawk.

Bung hnihna-ah hian Laifa te’n Lal an lo neih tan dan a chhui tan a. Lai hnam te hi Zohnahthlak pakhat Tibeto-Burman pengkhat hnam ni in thawnthu pakhat lung/puk atanga lo chhuak angin a sawi a. Hei hi hming hrang hrangin Zo hnahthlak te chuan an vuah a ni (Chhinlung, Shinlung, Khul, Khur, Khro, Puk etc). Lal an lo neih tak dan ngaihnawm tak mai Pu Henmanga ziah chu a rawn thur chhuak a, chhui hlat theih berah chuan Simpi khua (1400-1500 AD) in zariat lai mai dinna chu Lai khua hmasa ber ni a ngaih a ni a. He khua lo in din dan leh achhan erawh chu sawi lan nilo mahse lal ropui takin a awp thu kan hmu a. He hmun atang hian Sunthla khua-ah leh Lailun puk kan tih-ah te chuan an pemthla a, heta tang hian Falam te, Halkha te, Thantlang leh Chin Hills khaw hrang hrangah in taidarh ta ni a sawi a ni. Tlang hrang hrang a lalna chang lalte hi- Chinzah te, Zathang, Khenglawt, Hlawnchhing, Hlawncheu leh Hranglungchung te ni. A bikin Hranglungchung hi chu Zathang atang peng khat a nih avangin sawi hran a ni meuh lo, Zathang lalte ang a sawi tho ni bawk. Heng mai bakah hian Lai hnam zingah Fanai lal te to bul ziahlan a ni bawk a. Zathang leh Chinzah te hriatpuina in 1700 AD khan Thatinkuala chuan Rungtlang khua (Halkha bul) ropui tak a din a. Fanai hnam te chuan Lushai (Mizoram) an pem thlak hnu-ah pawh lal mumal tak nei zelin Lunglei district Mizoram hmar lam a mi hi Fanai Tlangdung (Hill Range) ti a koh a ni. Fanai hnamte hi dep a awm an nih avangin Lusei hnam zerang (customs and tradition) tam tak in a chiah hneh a, Lai hnam ni mahse a hnu deuh phei chuan Lai hnam-ah an inrin lut ta mang lo a a ni.

Lai lal chite thlang an rawn tlak dan hi a ngaihnawm hle mai a. Lai lalte hian hmathlir thui tak an nei a, an awm hmun bukhuar ringawtlo in an lalram zauh dan chu mutmawh hnarmawh a an neih a ni. An thlah kal zel te tan ramzau tak leh ropui tak din chu an tum ber pakhat a ni.

Ram zauh zel tur a penchhuak hmasaber chu Vanhnuaithlira Hlawncheu niin a ni hi Chhiahtinkhara Hlawncheu fapa a ni. Ani hian Thlacheu Falam a mi fanu Mangmen chu nupui-ah neiin inremna ropui tak a siam hmasa te te a. Amah pui bawm turin Bawm te, Pang te, Tlanglau te, Miria te, Fambawl, Vanphawn te, Hauheng te, Tuallawt, Bunghai leh Ramlawt hnamte chuan an tawiawm a. He an zinchhuah hma hian ruai ropui tak an theh hmasa a, hetah hian hlauhawm tawpah pawh inpuitawn zel turin an intiam hlawm a ni. Vanhnuaitlir-a chuan chhimtuipui dung zawh zelin Sangau leh Pangkhua a din a. Fambawl ho chu Sangau enkawltur leh Pakhua chu Pang te enkawlturin a ti a. Thlang lamah tawlh thla zelin Rengtlang khua chu Chittagong, Bangladesh-ah a din ta zel a. Rengtlang atang hian Tlanglau te, Bawm te, Pang leh Miri te hi hmun hrang hrangah an kal darh a, Rengtlang lal hnuaih an kun ta zel bawk a ni. He lai hmunah hian lalram ropui tak an din a ni.

A tum hnihna chu Phunhnawma Tlangchhan, Bawilawma Tinthe leh Zabiaka Famchun te an ni a. Hemite hi Chin Hills-a Chawngthia khua a mi te an ni. Chhimtuipui kanin South Vanlaiphai, Sangau leh Vawmbuk-ah te khua an din a.  Heng mi huaisen tak tak pathum te hi lal chhungkua a mi an ni lem lo a, Zathang lal Halkha a mi tirh te an ni. 1875 khan Zabiaka Famchun chuan Vawmbuk khua a din a, he khua-ah hian Zathang lal hriatpuina in ro a rel a ni. A hnu hian Tumcheuva leh afapa Saitura chuan an awp leh a. 1885 Zathang ho lo thlen thlak khan he khu-ah hian ro an rel chhun zawm ta a ni. Chutiang ang tho chuan Phuhnawma Tlangchhan hian theihtawpin Zathang tan kawng a lo sial a, Muallianpui, South Vanlaiphai leh Cheural-ah khua a din zel a ni. Heta kan hmuh chu an lalte tan an inpek zia leh an lalte ngei pawhin an tan a rinawm te hnen a that an chhuah zia hi a ni.

A tum thumna hi Lungzarh atangin Chinzah leh Khenglawt, leh Khuafo atangin Hnialum, Famchun, Mualchin, Zinhlawng te an ni. He mite zingah hian Tialcheuva Chinzah chu Lushai Hills (Mizoram) kai hmasa ber leh he ram a thi hmasa ber a ni bawk. An zingkawng hi a bumboh hle mai a, ram ngaw zau tak dai dar a nih avangin eitur vaimim te an ching phawt a, eitur an ngah hnu-ah chauh an kal leh thin. He lehkhabu ziaktu hian an kal ki-kawi em avangin Israelfate’n Kanaan ram an pan ang mai khan a tehkhin nghe nghe a ni. Kal zelin Champhai, Zopuihmun, North Vanlaiphai, Lungkawlh, Zotlang, Zawngtetui, Bungzang, Saitual, Thingsulthliah, Tlungvel, Chhiahtlang, Baktawng, Thenzawl, Mualthuam, Lunglei, Pukpui, Ralvawng, Thiltlang, Khawngbawk, Perilung, Khuanghlum, Runzawl, Tlangphirh leh Cherhlun-ah te an thleng thla ta zel a. 1861 khan Cherhlun an awm lai hian Sailo lal te nen inremna an siam a. Cherhlun atang hian Hausata Chinzah ho in khaw thar an kai a, in 200 lai niin Lungtian khua chu an din a ni.  Hausata Chinzah kalsan tak a unaupa Hrattlir-a chuan Cherhlun hi a awp chhunzawm zel bawk. Chinzah lalram chu zauh zel a ni a, Fungkah khua-ah hian Dokulh-a Chinzah chuan lalna a chang bawk a ni. Mizoram hmun tam zawk-ah hi Chinzah lal ram a nih avangin Mizoram history atan hian thil pawimawh leh chhinchhiah tlak tak a ni. Khuafo group ni lem lo Chinzah lal dang an awm a, Mara te’n an lal ni tur a a bik a an sawm ngat te an ni. An ni hian North Lushai Hills rawn hrut ve lo in Thantlang atangin ding takin Siaha (Saiha) hi an rawn pan a ni. An ni Mara te chuan ‘Chozah’ tiin an lo vuah a, a rei tak hnu phei chuan Mara Hnam zerangah thuk takah an inchiah piah a, Mara Hnam ti a koh an ni ta hial a ni.

A tum li-na hi Hlawnchhing lalte Thantlang atang chhukthla te an ni a. Chhuarlung, Serkawr, Saiha hmun a in khuar te hi an ni. Hlawnchhing hnamte hi Chinzah ang tho a Mara lal tur a sawm te an ni a.  An hnam hming pawh ‘Hlychho’ ti a vuah sakin Mara te hian an hnam angchhungah an la lut bawk a ni. Hlawnchhing lal te hi chi hnih a then an ni a, Nithanga thlah te leh Khamreia thlah te, Iakhai Hlychho hi Nithanga thlah te zing a mi a ni a, Laichi Hlychho hi Khamrei-a thlah atangin a ni thung. He ta lang chiang chu mahni chipui te mai bakah an bula mi te pawn an theihna hria a, lal a an iai lo tih hi.

Bung thumna-ah hian Lalte dinhmun chiang taka ziah a ni a. Lal leh a khua leh tui te inkar a thatzia te, an lalte an rin zia leh thlah kal zel te pawh lal tur a an duh avangin ‘hereditary system” hi an nei chhunzawm ni a tarlan a ni a. Chumi a nih avang chuan lal chite hian lal-na ringawt nilo lalna dinhmun an mizia a an vawn zahawm zia chiang takin a lang a ni. Ka chhiar tirh khan a ziaktu hian thu a uar deuhin ka he thin a, amaherawhchu lehkhabu ka chhiar zawh meuh chuan a thu vuak thlak hi ka tawmpui ve thei ta a ni. Lalte ram awpbeh dan hi “Chiefdom” ti a sawi fiah a ni a. Hei hi ngun deuh a chhut chuan Khawvel history a hunlai hawl Europe ram a Medieval structure nen khan a in ang hle a ni. He mi chungchangah hian “Pre-Colonial Mizoram kha Medieval culture a awm thei em?” tih hi tun hma deuh khan University-ah kan Professor te nen kan inhnial (Debate) chiam tawh a. He lehkhabu lo chhuak hman lo hi ka haw ngawt mai. Hetah hian lal te’n an an thuhnuai a awm lal dang te hnen atanga chhiah an lak thu te, chu khua ralmuanna chu an mawhphurhna-ah la mi tu emaw in lo do ta se, an pui mai thin a. Chin Hills atanga an Lai lal ropuite’n tlang hran hran a an thuhnuai a lal te an uap dan leh an roreldan khaidiat ropui tak hi zir tham a tling a ni. He lehkhabu hian history atanga thlirna tarmit Lusei Centric kan tih mai atang khan tarmit thar (Above view/approach) a thlirna min siam sak a, chuta tanga thlir chuan kan history thlirna hi a lo fiah ta em em a ni. Chumi a tih theihna chhan chu a hma kan sawi tawh angin ziaktu hian methodology mumal tak hmang a a source te a rem khawm thiam em vang a ni.

Bung lina-ah chuan British lo kal hnu-a Lai lalte dinhmun thailan a ni ve thung a. Hetah hian thil pathum pawimawh tak tak chhinchhiah tur kan hmu a,  ‘Lai’ tih tobul chhuichianna leh British lo kal hnu-a lal hnam mi pangngai (Commoners) te atanga an lo awm tak thu te, Chinzah lalropui Dokulha Chinzah chanchin te an ni. British ho khan ‘Chin’ tiin an ko a, hei hi official a hman chhunzawm a ni. Arakan mi te chuan ‘Shendus’ tiin an ko thung a, (Shendus) ti a an koh te hi Mara hnam pawh a huam a, ngun deuh a zir chian hian Mara leh Lai hnamte hi tawng emaw hnam zerang-ah pawh ni se an in hnaih hle a ni. Lushai Hills erawh chuan ‘Pawi’ ti a koh an ni thung a. A ziaktu hian  Pu Henmanga ziah ‘Pawi’ ti a an koh chhan chu ngaihnawm takin a ziak chhhawng a. 1865 khan Hmar lam Sailo lalte chuan Chhim lam Sailote do turin an inbuatsaih a, pui turin Lai pasaltha te an sawm a ni. He an inbeihna-ah hian Lai pasaltha chuan “keima pawite” tiin a in hrosa a, hemi awmzia chu “Keimah Keite” tihna a ni. Lusei pasaltha te chuan a thusawi chu an hriatthiam loh avangin ‘Pawi’ tiin an sawi tlat mai a, Heta tang hian ‘Pawi’ ti a koh an lo ni ta a ni. Mi tam takin ‘Pawi’ ti a koh hi an duh loh laiin, Chhimtuipui district-a mi thenkhat chuan pawi an ti lem lo bawk. Dokulh-a Chinzah man a nih khan Lushai lal pakhat angin record a ni a, hei hi Lushai Hills a lalna chang a nih vang pawh a ni thei ang. He lehkhabu ziaktu hian a ziahna hmun leh source a zirin a hman pawlh nuk mai a, buaina tur hranpa a awmlo a, a tifiah zawk mahin a hriat a ni.

He lehkhabu-ah hian Zohnahthlak hrang hrangte hmun tin a kan intaidarh nachhan pakhat chiang takin a rawn tarlang a. Sailo lalte chu chhim lam atangin Lai hnam thenkhat- Zahau, Thantlang (Chinzah), Falam (Tlaisun), Fanai leh Hakha te’n an hnawt chhuak a. Sailo te chuan Hrangkhol, Biate, Thadou leh hnamdangte Lushai Hills hmar lam atangin an hnawt chhuak ve thung a ni. Zohnahthlak te pem dan kha ngun taka chhhut chuan sociologist Ravenstein an hnam hrang hrangte pem chhan  a sawi pakhat ‘push theory’ah khan an khungluh theih a ni. Hnam chaklo zawk te chu hnam chak zawk te chuan an awmna atangin an nawr chhuak thin. Lai hnamte hi Zohnahthlak hnamdangte hian an ngam meuhlo ni in a lang a. Anmahni hnenah hian kumtinin chhhiah an pe bawk thin. British-ho Lai lalte thuneihna huam chhunga an rawn lan khan an ni tan chuan an ramri rawn dai tu te an nih miau avangin ngaihtheih chi a ni miahlo a ni. 1850 khan Lusei lalte Suakpuilala, Vanhnuailiana, Vuta, Lalngura leh Lalpuiliana te chuan British ho nen Lai hnam te hlauh vangin inremna an siampui nghe nghe a ni. British sorkar khan tlangmite chu a theih chinah chuan an inrelbawlna a in rawlh loh a tum hmasa a, amaherawhchu an sumdawnna ram a hnathawkte an thah fo avangin hremna leh tlangmi dangte tan a zirtirna ni pah fawmin an awp bet ta chauh a ni. British thuhnuai a kun duhlo tam tak Zohnahthlak te an awmlaiin Dokulha Chinzah in theihtawp a dodalna hi ngaihnawm tak leh India struggle for independence emaw Colonial resistance zirna huang zawlah hian dah chi a ni ngei ang.

Dokulha Chinzah Fungkah khua lal ropui zia leh a khua leh tui te’n an tan zia hi a ngaihnawm hle. Muslim pa thah chungchanga British thuneitute laka a khua leh tui te’n an tan zia-ah hian a lang chiang hle a ni. Chumai bakah chuan Jail atan atanga thiam Bengali, Hindi te leh British thuneitu te hnena an hekna ziak ngei a khinletna te hi ngun taka chhut chuan mi rilru chak tak leh hawizau tak a ni tih a hriat theih a. Zo hnahthlak lal zingah hian Khamliana’n Kumpinu hnen a lehkhathawnte kha kan sawilar viau a, Dokulha hi mifing hmasa Zohnahthlak lal zingah chuan chhaunawm tak history-a hmun luah ngei ngei tlak a ni. Hei vang hian a ni ngei ang Indian Martyrs lehkhabu Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Government of India chhuah phek 84-na ah chuan a hming hi a chuang vang a ni.

British awpbeh hnu khan Decentralisation policy of Chieftainship an rawn hman tak avangin a hma lal chhungkua/hnam ni lemlo commoners atangin lalna chang an rawn awm ta thliah thliah a chungte chu- Tlangchhan, Aineh, Fanchun, Nutlai leh Tlanglau te hi an ni. Amaherawhchu heng zingah hian Tlanglau hnamte hi an lal Vanhnuaihlira Hlawncheu chuan tlang hran chang a lal turin a phal sak tawh tih ziak hmasa-ah kan hmu a, an ni hian an ram luahlai chhuahsanin Bangladesh ram thlengin an lal ram zauh turin an thawk chhuak ta tih kan hre bawk a ni.

Bun nga-na ah hian a ziaktu hian Lal ban chungchang leh chumi kar lak a Laifate dinhmun nguntakin a chhui zel a. British sorkar thuneitu te Lai leh Luseite chu tawng hmangah te, history leh culture-ah te in zul em a an hriat avangin awpbeh a awlsam nan rorelna zaika dah an rawt fo thin a. Chumi avang chuan Chin Hills Regulation 1896 pawh Lushai Hills leh Chin Hills-ah hian an hmang nghe nghe a ni. Amaherawhchu, British ho an chhuah hnu khan Chin Hills chu Burma lamah dahin Lushai Hills chu Indian Union an dah ta daih a ni. British ho khan Zohnahthlak tlangmite chu danglam em a an hriat vangin administrative reform a ni emaw political reform a ni emaw an huam tir ve ngai meuhlo a. 1937 atanga 1947 thleng khan Excluded Area puan a ni nghe nghe a ni. Inner Line Regulation chu Lushai Hills-ah 28th August 1930 khan hman a ni a. Hemi dan pahnih avang hian ram pawn lam mite chuan Hills hi an tlawh mai mai theilo a, hei hian phai vaite chimpilna lak a ta a venghim em em a ni. He a lehkhabuziaktu pawh hian Tripura Tribalte angin mahni ramah tlem zawk ni in he dan hi zamlo se chuan chimral an ni ve ngei ang tih hi a ngaihdan a ni.

A tawi zawngin Zohnahthlakte pawhin lehkha anlo thiam ve ta zel a, Lal paihthla a, mipui rorelna sorkar din duhna a lo lian tial tial a, chumi vang chuan Mizo Union chu 9th April, 1946 khan Macdonald Superintendent of Lushai Hills phalna a din a ni a. Mizo Union hruaitute inkarah thuneihna inchuh inhruipawh awm viau mahse an thurual tlanna ber chu Lal ban kha a ni, chu chu election a an au hla pawh a ni reng a. Mizo Union do tur leh an thil tumte thiat tur hian pawl pakhat United Mizo Freedom Movement (UMFO) 1947 khan a rawn ding leh a, an dinhmun ngai luah reng tur a sual theihna hmanrua an ngaih avangin Lalte pawhin an thlawp hle a ni. Theihtawpin mipui mai bakah thuneitu te rilru hneh tumin an thawk a, a tawpah chuan Mizo lalte banna chu kum 1954 khan puan a lo ni ta a ni. He dan in awmzia a neih tanna tak tak erawhchu Lushai Autonomous District Council-ah hian  1st April 1955ah ni in, Pawi-Lakher Regional Area erawh chuan 15th April, 1956-ah a ni thung. Hemi a nih avang hian hun rei tak lal rorelna chu Village Council chuan a rawn thlak ta a ni.
Nguntaka he lehkhabu keu hian Lal zingah hian lal chite hian Politics lamah pawh hnam tan thehnem an ngai khawp mai. MacDonald thlaktu LL Peters thurawn ngaithla in Pawi-Lakher Tribal Union (P.L.T.U)chu an din vat a. Theihtawpin thuneitu te hnenah an thatna turin an bei a, he a thawhrimna avang hian 1952 a Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council din hnu lawk khan 1953-ah Pawi-Lakher Regional Council hi a rawn piang ve nghal a ni.

Bung rukna-ah hian lal ban tak hnu a mipui sorkarna hnuaia lalte dinhmun inphet hleklo chu chipchiar taka ziah a ni a. Lai Politician hlawhtling tam tak te thailan a ni nghe nghe. A ziaktu hian nguntakin he politician hlawhtlingte hi interview a neih pui a, an rilru awm pawh a hriat mai theih phah a ni. Lal hnamte hian ram lei lung neitu nihna ownership an neih avangin an ram hmasawnna leh hmathlir thui takin an nei a, hmanlai atanga tunlai thlengin lalthlah te chu fing leh fel tur a ngaih an ni. An khua leh tuite pawhin mak tak main lal ban thu awm mahse sorkar kalphung tharah chuan an paihthla duh chuang lo a ni. Hei hi Lusei hnamte nen a an in anlohna tak pakhat pawh a ni a. A lehlamah chuan heng lal thlah kal zelte hi mi lehkhathiam hmasa te an lo ni leh zel bawk a. Hemi ti rinawm tur hian sorkar lam a hnasang thawk tamtak hming he lehkhabu-ah hian tarlan a ni bawk. Amaherawhchu he administration inthlak hian thil tha vek a bik lo a, Land Revenue Department hnuai-ah mimalin ram a lo neih theih ta a, a theih fa te chuan ram tam tak an nei duai duai a, mirethei leh thuneihna nei ve lo te chuan ram a chhal tur pawh an nei bar ta lo a ni. Ram suamsam a ni a, hemi avang hian tlawmngai pawlte’n theihtawpin humhalh tur a an beih a ngai bawk. Mipuite hian chu ram chuan hmasawnna ke a pen theihnan leh neitu chan chang thin lal hnamte ngei chu Village Council a ni emaw District council a ni emaw mipui te hian anla iai lo a an thlang lal ta zel a ni.

He lehkhabu hian ngaihtuahna tam tak min neih tir a, phai ram a dynastic politics kan tih te Mizoram-ah pawh ‘Lalchhungkua’ tih te nen zawng zawng hian. Hei hian rahtha a chhuah zel ang em? tih chu khuareiin a la hril dawn a ni. He lehkhabu hian Tribal politics ruangam lo chhuahna leh khawnge a kal zel dawn tih min hriat tirin min chhuizawn tir a. Lehkhathiam leh thiamlo thleng a ram hmasawnna duh tan chuan chhiar ngei ngei chi a ni.

            Eng lehkhabu mah hi sawiselbo a awm meuhlo, chumi a nih avang chuan he lehkhabu-ah pawh hian kher a, keu a, chip neuh neuh chuan sawisel tur chu a awm ve nual tho mai. Ziah sual awm zauhte, a ziaktu in sawifiah a tum lutukna lam a ziah nawn a neih leh fo te hian thu chhiar tihfiah lam aimahin min hriatpawlh tir (confuse) ve tho mai. Chhiar nawn leh fo erawh chuan a tifiahtu tak a ni lawi si. A saptawng hman hi har tak a hmang lem lo a, dictionary sentence tin a keu ngai ang kha a ni ve lem lo a. Lehlamah chuan research standard sang tak a ni lawi si a ni. He lehkhabu-ah hian taihmakna, thawhrimna, thehnemngaihna a in phum nasa hle ni in ka hria a. A ziaktu hian thulai la (objective) hle in ka hre bawk. Laifate mai bakah Zohnahthlakte zing a thu ziak ropui, rotling a ni ngei tih hi he lehkhabu ka khup a ka thu keuhthluk chu a ni. Lai Chieftainship and Its Impact in Politics chhiar nuam ule.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015


Malsawmdawngliana  Lailung

Khawvela Democracy ram lian ber India mipui te aiawh turin Narendra Modi hi ni 26 May 2014 khan India ram Prime minister 15 atan minister 45 nen lawm luh an ni a. Hetiang ang reng reng a ram chhung mai nilo sapram chanchinbu thleng a chanchin ngaihven hlawh hi India ramah hian a tam awm lo e. Chu Modi hruai sorkar chuan ni 365 lai mai an lo hmang ta der mai. Kum khat chhung hian hmasawnna ropui sawi tham tling han tih hi tu tan pawh thil har tak a ni ngei ang. India ram media tam zawkte chuan an hnathawh hi rate sang takah dahin distinction-ah an pass tir rih a ni. Beiseina sang tak nen a India mite thlir mek hi tehna thenkhat hmangin i han buk ve dawn teh ang.
1) ECONOMY: “India ramah chuan Economy tha chhawpchhuah hi politics hralh tla lo leh therhlotete hmasawnna tluan tlinglo zawrh hi Politics tan hamthatna a ni e” ti a sawi a ni thin. India ram economy sawi danglam zing a thawh hlawk hruaitu Narashimha Rao, Atal Bihari Vaipayee atanga Chandra Babu Naidu thlengin mipuiin an lawm chhun zawmlo tih kan hria! Modi hian CM rei tak a lo nihna Gujarat-a Economy a lo champion pui hmangin India ram thuai danglam a rawn tum a ni, chu a thil tum chu amah leh a hruai BJP tan hian politics tha a ni em? tih chu hunin a la hril ang chu. ‘Miretheite sorkar’ ti a inchhal hi lehlamah chuan Cor-porate ho lungawina economic plan kal pui a sawisel an ni tho!
Prime Minister Narendra Modi hian sorkarna chan atangin India ram ei leh bar leh dehchhuah lamah thahnemngai takin hma ala nghal a. Inthlan campaign-a auhla ber pawh “Ni tha a lo herchhuak dawn e” (Hindi: Achhe din anne wale hain /English: Good days are coming) tih a ni nghe nghe. Inthlan lai a campaign-na a an auhla zingah India mihausa te’n ramdang a a ruk a pawisa an chheprel (black money) thin te mumal tak a chhui chhuah a, chung pawisa te chu India ramah laklet sak an intiam a ni. Sorkarna an chan atangin black money te lakletna atan theihtawp in Modi-a a sorkar chuan hma a la ta a, chutiang anga sorkar in hma alak theih nan May ni 11, 2015 khan Parliament-ah Undisclosed Foreign Income and Assets (Imposition of Tax) Bill, 2015 chu putluh a ni ta a ni. He dan hmang hian dan lo a ramdang a pawisa chhep rel chingte man leh hrem bakah ramdang sorkar nen a chung sumte chu chinfel theih a ni tawh dawn a ni.
Modi-a sorkar hian mipui vantlang te’n an chhawr tangkai theih turin tuialhthei man pawh a tlawm thei ang berin an ti hniam thin a.  Kum khat an sorkar chhung May ni 26, 2014 atanga January ni 14, 2015 chhung khan India tuialhthei (crude oil) a lakluh man chu 60% in a tlahniam a ni ($108.05 per barrel to $43.36 per barrel).
Modi-a sorkar chuan Nehru ngaihtuahna atanga lo zi chhuak India in kum 65 a lo kalpui tawh Planning Commission chu thiat in a aiah National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog a din thar a, hei hian sorkar laipui leh state sorkar te’n economic leh development lama chak zawk a hma an lak theihna tur a duan a ni.
Khawvel ram dang te nen a in sumdawn tawnna tha neih theih nan leh sum peipunna atan Modi-a sorkar chuan India ram khawpui lian te chei leh tihhmasawnnan Smart Cities project a duang chhuak a, Union cabinet chuan Smart Cities Mission senso tur atan hian Rs. Vaibelchhe 48,000 a pawm a ni.
Narendra Modi sorkar chuan kum 2022 ah chuan India ram a chhungkua zawng zawng ten chenna in an neih vek theih nan hma la tan a, urban development leh rural development ministry ten khawpui chhung ah In vaibelchhe 6-2 leh thingtlang ah In vaibelchhe 4 sak na turin hma an la mek a ni.
Narendra Modi sorkar in kumkhat a tlin chhung 204-15 hian India ramchhung economy GDP chu 7.3% in a pung a ni.
Thil siamchhuahna tenau zawk leh sumdawnna liantham lo zawk te’n an hman tangkai theih tur Mudra Bank ti a hriat lar Micro Units Development Refinance Agency (MUDRA) chu Modi-a sorkar chuan a hawng a. Mudra bank hian sumdawnna liantham lo vaibelchhe 5.77 te a enkawl in tanpuina a pe dawn a ni.
Mipui nawlpui ten insurance an neih theih nan sorkar laipui chuan insurance schemes thar a duang chhuaka hei hi India mipui vaibelchhe 7.5 ten an hmang tangkai mek a ni.
2. EXTERNAL AFFAIRS: India ram Prime Minister leh minister dangte lawmluhna ni –ah chuan India ram chuan khual zahawm a nei sa hle- SAARC hotu lian tak tak an thu ngir khup mai kha a ni. He chanchin ti ngaihnawm zualtu chu India hmelma hlun Pakistan hruaitu te hmel kan hmu leh Sri Lanka President an sawm chungchang kha a ni. India ram chhunga NDA thawhpui AIADMK leh MDMK hruaitu te chuan Sri Lanka President lo tel mai hi an sawisel nasa hle a, sawmlo tura ngenna a nasa hle. Chumai a nilo, an thawhpui thin tho Shiv Sena phei chuan Pakistan mi lo tel kha a helh hle a nih kha. Tu thusawi mah chu an bengkhawn lem hleilo a, India ram politics buai fo na thin party te reuh te te tih lungawi ngai kha chang dang an kan san dawn a ang hle.
Chik taka thlirtu te tan chuan Foreign Affairs hi sorkar thar chuan an ngaithu tak hle dawn tih a lang reng mai. Rin ang rengin ram 101 lai mai kumkhat chhungin tlawh leh inlaichinna siam a ni tawh a! External Affairs hi Sushma Swaraj chan a ni a, a ni hi kum 1990 -1993 lai a Mizoram governor lo ni tawh Swaraj Kaushal fanu kha a ni. Kum sawm panga zet mai India ram Prime minister te’n Nepal ram an fan lo hnuin ram pahnihte inlaichinna ti chak turin Modi chuan a hun rem chang hmasa berah a tlawh a, hei mai a nilo Sumshma Swaraj chuan minister a nih atanga a thla hnih ala ral lo tiin nithum chhung awh tur India-Nepal inlaichinna tur a committee an siam JCM (Joint Commission) ho turin a thlawk lut nghe nghe a nih kha. Nepal in lirnghing avangin harsatn a tawk a, India sorkar chuan theihtawpin a chhawm dawl a ni. Modi hian Israel tlawh leh thuai pawh a tum nghe nghe. India ram chhungah leh pawnah Sanskrit tih lar an tum hle. Germany sorkar chu tunhnai mai khan MoU siampui tum a proposal thawn a ni a. Hetah hian German tawng chu additional language a zirin German pawhin Sanskrit emaw India modern language pakhat tal an ram a zir ve turin an thawn, Engtin tak chhang ang maw?
Ram dang tlawh a zin kual bakah hian tun hnai a Iraq leh Yemen a India mite chhanchhuahna kawngah nasa takin mite fak an hlawh hle. Yemeni nu pakhat India mi pasal a nei chuan a harsatna te social media twitter hmangin a thawn nasa hle a, minister chuan media hmang tangkaiin a pui nghe nghe a ni. Mite hmuh vek theih a social media a mi an tanpui hian external affairs a an chak zia a lantir a, media tam takin an chhuah chuaih chuaih a ni.
A lehlamah chuan Make in India (India mite siam) promote tu sorkar hian ramdang nen hian inremna an siam reng si a, Make in India a ni thei zo zai dawn a mi tih hi mi thenkhat te zawhna a nita reng mai. Heng bakah hian hetiang khawp a zinchhuak hian enge an sawi chhuah tak tih hi oppositionte zawhna lian ber a ni bawk.
3) DEFENCE: Tun hma lam atang khan NDA/BJP hruai sorkar hi hindu nationalism ngaipawimawh leh promote-tu te an nih avangin ram venhimna lamah hi chuan party dang ai a duh hriam deuh a ngaih an ni thin. A.K. Antony fimkhur luat avanga che muang thin a puh te ai chuan Defence minister Manohar Parrikar chu che chak deuh a ngaih a ni. Make in India rawn chawilianin India rama siam theih ang ang chu ralthuam pawh siam tum a ni a. India leh ramdang inkar ramri chungchang nasa zawk a ngiahtuah te, one rank one pension tih te chu an in tiam kamna a ni. French sorkar atanga Rafales Jet  leichung chang a fel lawklo chu minister thar hian a rawn chingfel ta a. He Jet thatak 36 hi India chuan a nei tawh mai dawn a ni. Kashmir tuilian chhanchhuahna-ah te, Yemen atanga India mite hruai chhuahna kawngah Defence ministry hi an thawk tha hle a ni. Hetih lai hian sorkar chu an policy ber Make in India chu ngaihthahah opposition te chuan an puh ve thung bawk.
4) MHRD: Thil mak deuh mai chu Smriti Irani lehkhathiam sanglo takin MHRD minister a chang tlat mai kha a ni. India ram henu hnathawh hi a hre chak a ni, dingdihlipin a hnathawhte kan lo thlir thuap a. He sorkar tharin an tiam a chu New Educational Policy an tih a hnuai atanga a sang siam that chhoh (Bottoms-up) kha a ni. Hei hian a tum ber chu mitlemte mithiam emaw in a policy thlak danglam tawhlo in, mipui tam zawk, block, district leh state level a mite duhdanin he thil inthlak danglamah hian aw an nei thei dawn a ni. Heng bakah hian Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) college level thleng a tih an tum a, chumi tur chuan hma anla ta reng a ni. Hemi tur hian thu khauh tak mai chhuah a ni a. Delhi University-a zirtirtu te phei chuan an dodal nasa hle. He system hi India ram zirna hmun hrang hranga exam result tehna hrang nuai mai hrut rualna tur leh hnalatu te tan pawh awlsam an rin vang a rawn ti chhuak an ni. Amaherawhchu, he systemah hian exam, test evaluation a tam avangin hna a ti tam a, chumai bakah sumdawng awn zirna system ang hialin a duhlo tu te chuan an sawisel a ni. UGC leh AICTE endiktu tur committee siam an tiam bawk a ni. Zirlaite tan scholarship Ishan Vikas, Ishan Uday leh Pragati te an rawn ti chhuak bawk a. Mizoram a zirlaite pawhin he scholarship hi kan lo la tan der tawh bawk.
Hetihlai hian ministry chuan sawiselna tam tak a tawk ve bawk. Delhi University Undergraduate Programme kum li thlak chungchangah te, Kendriya Vidalaya third language-a an zir German, Sanskrit a thlak tak daih te, Good Governance Day Krismas ni kher a hman an han ti tlat mai te, Indian Council of Historical Research-a mi pawimawhte RSS mi leh sa Hindu sakhua promote duhte an dah hmiah hmiah mai te hi a ni. Tun hnai vai a NCERT director Parvin Sinclair, IIT Delhi director R Shevgaonkar leh IIT Bombay board of governors chairman Anil Kakodkar an bang suau mai te chuan mi a barakhaih hle. Tunah hian University hrang hrang hrang a Vice Chancellor post tamtak hi tihkhah/lak an la nilo bawk. Mizoram lamin kan bengkhawn deuh Budget a SSA sum an ti hniam chiam mai hi a ni bawk.
5) HEALTH: Health minister thar Harshvardhan chu JP Nadda chuan reilo te-ah a rawn thlak thut mai a. He sorkar tharin atira a ngaihpawimawh chu Mitinte hnen-a hriselna tha zawk tiam leh zuk leh hmuam chungchangah te a ni. Minister an thlak khan Mission Indradhanush Immunisation lamah nasatakin hma an rawn la ta a. India Newborn Action Plan chu September 2014-ah tihchhuah a ni a. Heng bakah hian A national deworming programme te, A National Health Portal te, National Mental Health Policy te hi an tih lar zual te chu a ni. Health lam hi opposition lamte chuan minister chaklo-ah an puh a. File reng rengte chu PMO leh Secretaries te inkarah thlawk kual thin leh minister hian a hna chanpual awm ze hrelo leh awmlo ang hialah an puh bawk.
6) HOME: Home Minister Rajnath Singh khan charge alak chiah khan Helho (Left Wing Extremist) ho hmachhawnna thar leh Pakistan, Bangladesh leh Afghanistan atanga tihduhdah/nghaisak tuarte tan hunrei tak India cham theihna Visa pek a tiam a ni. Mitu emaw helho emaw kut lo tuar ta se sorkar chuan nuai thum a pek thin kha nuainga ah a san a, heng bakah hian Delhi leh UT hmun a Police a lak zinga za a sawm thum pathum chu hmeichhia an ni. DGPs of Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF) chu thil lei na sum hman chungchangah thuneihna tam zawk pek an ni.  Heng bakah hian 60 cadres of Assam’s NDFB(S) kum 2014-a mi 78 lai thah chungchanga in hnamhnawihte an man bawk.
            Leslee Udwin Documentary lartak mai India’s Daughter- kum 2012 Delhi a mi tam takin mipakhat an pawngsual chungchang film chu an khap tlat mai a. Home Secretary Anil Goswami in Matang Sinh Sardha Scam chungchang a CBI Officialte man tir a puhin ban a nih hi opposition ho chuan an bauh let nasa hle. Chumai bakah State hrang hrangte Governor a siksawi nasa hle, a bikin Mizoram phei chuan kan nei zing hle a nih hi.
7) URBAN DEVELOPMENT: India ram bal em em mai leh hmun tin a ek thlah dah tihreh nan Swachch Bharat mission chu nikum khan tan a ni a. Sum thahnem tak ni kumah vaibelchhe 859  leh kumin atan vaibelchhe 1,000 hman leh ruahman a ni. Zoramah ngei pawh he scheme avang hian kan ram hruaituten tual lai an phiat lauh lauh a ni. He scheme-ah hian mimal Ek In vaibelchhe 1.04 siam te, mipui hman tur Ek In nuai 5.08 siam te a ni. Heng bakah hian Smart City za siam an tiam a, hei erawh hi chu la thlan fel a la ni lo. Kum 2022-a mitin tan In neih tih chu hmalakna a la awm meuh lo bawk.
8) RURAL DEVELOPMENT: Prime Minister Programme Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana leh Congress bul lo tan tawh MGNREGA leh Swachh Bharat Abhiyan te chu hmachhawp langsar zual te an ni. Minister Birender Kumar India thingtlang mite tan theih tawpin hma a la ve a, mi retheite tanpuina anmahni a thlen ngei theihna turin mobile monitoring system an tih an hmang a, mimal tana Bank account siam in pawisa an dawng ta zung zung mai. Narendra Modi sorkar chuan hmun hrang hrangah thilsiamchhuahna hmunpui (Industry) te din nan sorkar in mimal ram a mamawh thin avangin dan  thar Land Acquisition Bill  chu parliament a putluh turin a duang mek a ni. He dan thar ah hian ram neitu kuthnathawk a eizawng te’n an ram chu sorkar in thilsiamchhuahna leh hmasawnna atana ruahmnanna a neih ah te a laksak a nih chuan an ram neih hlut zawng hu tawk pawisa a zangna dawmna an chan theih nan he dan hi duan a ni. Hei tak mai hi loneitu tamna India ram-ah chuan Loneitute hamthatna ngailo angin opposition te chuan an sawisel nasa hle a ni.
9) MINORITIES AFFAIRS: Najma Heptulla enkawl he ministry hian hnam hnuaihnung zawk te thilsiam chawilen leh tura theihtawp chhuah kha an tum ber pakhat a ni. He ministry ah hian Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) hmangin hnamhnuaihnungte kutah ngei a semtu hran awm tawhlo in scholarshipte an sem thei a. An tiam ang ngeiin India mite thil siambik hmasawnna turin project thar USTAD chu Varanasi-ah karhmasa lawk khan tih a ni. The Maulana Azad National Academy for Skills pawh din a ni tawh bawk. Hna tha tak thawk bawk mahse leh lamah chuan “India mite zawng zawng hi Hindu an ni e” tih avangte in sawisel an hlawh nasa hle. Opposition te chuan mahni a ngaihtuah chhuah thar an nei meuhlo pahnih khat bak chu he ministry enkawltu hian a ngaihna a hrelo a ni tiin an bei nasa hle. An programme kal pui hi eng a an dawn hriat ala ni lo a, ngawi reng a lo la thlir mai chi a ni.
10) RAILWAYS: A hranpa ngata budget pharh thin Railways Ministry hi tu pawh sorkar se ngaihnawm tak a ni ziah. Budget-in a tiam te chu Foreign direct investment te, Project 30 awmsa tana pawisa tamtak dah leh hmasawna tur a hmalak te, Rel leh Station bal lutuk tihfai te a ni hlawm a. Hei mai bakah hian Modi hian rang taka hmasawnna a awm theihnan ruahmanna bik a siam nghe nghe a ni. November khan Minister DV Sadananda Gowda chu Suresh Prabhu-in a rawn thlak a, posi an la tha leh chu hmasawnna a ti muang ta ruih mai. January khan kum hnih chhung appointment an tih Railway Board memberte leh General Managerte an ruat fel thei ta a. Hmasawnna langsar zualah chuah passenger thil dawn tih changkan deuh te, e-catering an tih mai te, mobile application hmanga ticket lak theih dan te, station thenkhata wifi dah te, hmeichhia himna tur ngaihtuah te hi a ni mai awm e. Hei mai bakah hian la tih lemloh hmalakna an nei nual a Coach tin a CCTV dah te, ram dang a tanga Electric Train lei te a ni. Train speed pangai bakin an la tlan tir thei lo a, hun dik taka thlen a chhuah lamah tun hma kha an pha lo bawk. Sum tamtak dahna faina chungchangah hmasawnna a la awm meuhlo a, a balh ngai in station te a la bal hle. Direct Investment chengkhat pawh India ram a lo la thlenglo bawk. Modi a tiam Bullet Train hi chu la nghah a ngai dawn a nih hmel e.
            File pawimawh tam tak hi PMO a luh tak avang leh mitin te’n Bank Account nei tur a hmalakna avangin thil engkim hi a direct ta em em a, eirukna a tlahniam hle. Hetih lai hian Modi nilo a thurualpuite hian hmasawnna ai Hindu lalna ram an tin zawn thin avangin abikin hnam hnuai hnung (Minorities) te’n harsatna an tawk nasa hle. India ram hmun hrang hrangah Hindu pathian Bawngsa ei khap-na tur a hmalak mek a ni a. Kristian Biak In tam tak suasam mek a ni bawk. Sorkar hmasawnna tur ruahmanna-ah hian state sorkar chet tam a ngaih avangin awm-awl ching state thenkhat chu an lung a muang meuh lo. Kuthnathawkte ai a sumdawng company leh Industry neitute ngaihsak zawkah he sorkar hi puh a ni mek bawk. Lehlamah chuan tunhnai a India ram political party pakhat sorkarna siam ngailo, party lian ber pawhin party te neuh neuh an thurualpuite lungawina ngaihtuah reng ngai kha a lo awm ta lo a, thuvuakthlak a khauh ta deuh. An economic plan hi BJP in sorkana an chanlohna hmun state a chakna an neih theihnan a an policy pakhat a nih tel avangin hmasawnna tak tak an thupuilo e, tih hi mi thenkhat ngaihdan a ni bawk. Engpawh nise, ilo thlir zel phawt ang.

Friday, May 1, 2015

Enteh, a lo herchhuak leh dawn ta :)

Blog lamah hun ka pe hman ta meuhlo! Achhan chu lehkhabu ka ziak ve a ni. Ka research tih lai khan Mizo chanchin saptawnga ziah hi a awm lo hle a. Library leh Arc
hives kan kal tum a phek khat chauh a awm paw'n kan lawm thei hle thin. Kan neilo miahlo chu a nilo a, research han tih ve takah chuan a beitham deuh thin a ni. Ka rilru in ka zirna hi ka zo thei a nih chuan theihtawpin saptawnga kan Mizo chanchin ziah leh hmalak kha ka intiamna a ni. Pathian zarah theihtawpin ka bei ve a, thiante pawh ka ban buai nasa bawk. Thiam vang ni hauhlo in a tulna in min nem thlu a, hei pakhat chu kan keuhthlu leh ta reng mai. A famkim hauh dawnlo, chiang sa...mahse thahnemngaihna tlang atanga thlir chuan lawmawm ve tak a ni.

Kan hnam nilo hnam dangah kan piang tawh dawnlo a, kan hnam kan ngaihsan leh chawisan hi kan bat ve a ni. Ram leh hnam ka vei ve dan leh thiam dan ber a ni. Tun hma khan ka insit thei lutuk a ziah hi ka ngamlo thin. Kei aia thiam zawk ni a ka hriatte an chet duhloh avangin a nikhualo ber hian ka ziak leh mai thin ang. An duh leh tha zawkte chu rawn ziak leh ang hmiang, a tlem lutuk hi a zia lo.

Monday, March 23, 2015

Zo hnahthlakte thlang tlak dan

Zo hnahthlak hrang hrangte hi \awngzir mi(Linguist) te chuan Tibeto Burman hnuaiah min rin lut a. Tibeto Burman hnuai a hnam hrang hrang te hi China ram a\anga rawn pem thla in, tun hma chuan China chhim thlang lam Yang Tse leh Hoang-ho luipui kam a cheng tawh te ni a sawi a ni (Lehman 11).[1] DGE Hall lehkhabu “A History of South-East Asia”-ah chuan Gobi thlaler, Tibet hmarchhak lam emaw Kansu hmun lai te hi an rawn chhuahna niin a sawi ve thung. Sangkima chuan China chhim lam a\anga thlang rawn tla thla \an ni in a sawi bawk (Sangkima 2004:20). A eng a pawh chu ni se Mizo historian tu pawh mai hian China lam chhuak kan nih hi chu tuman an ringhlel awm lo e.

Burma Kawlphai luh thu: He an thlang tlak dan hi ngaihnawm tak a ni a, an kal dan hi \huang thum lian tak tak te a \hen a ni a. A \huang khatna hi Pyu, Arakanese, Kachin leh hnam te an ni a. |huang hnihna leh \huang thumna hi Shan, Tai, Karen, Mon-Khmer leh midangte ni a sawi a ni. Zo hnahthlak te hi \huang khatna-a rawn thlang tla ve luipui kam rawn zawh zelin Chindwind luipui kam hi  a lo thleng thla a ni (Kipgen 1997:37). Chindwind luipui kam a\ang hian thlang lamah tawlh zelin Kabaw Valley an tih ‘Kawphai’ an lo thleng a. Hetih hun lai hian Kawlho nen hian rei tak chhung chu an cheng ho ni a sawi a ni. Zo hnanthlak te’n kawlhnam, kawlhrei, Kawltu, Kawlbahra, Kawlhai, Kawlthei, Kawlfung, Kawlhren, Kawlper leh a dang te hi an ni nen a chen ho a\ang a kan neih a ni (cited in Lalrimawia 1995:13). Hemi hnu hian he hmun a\ang hian Zo hnahthlak te thinlung a lai luahlumtu Khampat hmunah hian an in suan leh a (K. Zawla 2011:8). Pu K  Zawla hian hetih hunlai hi 950 AD ni in a chhut. He hun hi hun chin chhiah tlak tak a ni reng mai achhan chu Khampat hmunah hian Zo hnathlak hrang hrang te a bikin Chin, Burma awm ta te hi lungrual taka an luangza na hmun a ni a, \awng chikhat an hmang ni in Pu Mangkhosat Kipgen chuan a sawi nghe nghe (Kipgen 1997:39). He hmunah hian kum zabi hnih lai chu an khawsa nghe nghe a, amaherawh chu an lal thar ber nunrawng vang leh luilian vak mai chuan an awmna te a rawn tih chhiat avangin loh theihloh in an pem a lo ngai ta a ni (K. Zawla 2011:11). Amaherawh chu Pu B Lalthangliana hian Pu K Zawla ngaihdan ang ni lo  ngaihdan dang deuh a rawn nei ve bawk. Ani ngaihdanah chuan an hmelmate’n an rawn beih vangin a sawi thung, a hunbi-ah pawh Khampat an chhuahsan hun hi 1200AD ai chuan a hma theilo tiin a rawn sawi bawk.

Khampat an chen hunlai hi Mizo history-ah chuan hun chhinchhiah tlak tak a ni a. An chhuahsan dawn hian Khampat Bung an phun a, a zung hian lei a thlen hunah kan let leh ang tih kha an ngaihdan a ni, he an let leh ngei dawn tih hi an bul a awm Burma mi te hriatah an chham kher tiin Pu Mangkhosat Kipgen chuan a sawi bawk (Kipgen 1997:40-41). Khampat history a pawimawh em em na chhan chu Zo hnahthlak tam tak hian kan \obul kan sawi hian kan thinlung a a dai loh vek vang a ni. Chumi avang chuan hnam ang a zaikhat a kan luanna chungchangah hian hmanraw \ha tak pakhat a ni.

Khampat a\anga an chhuak hi Zo hnathlak hrang hrangte hi kan kal darh \an ta ni in a lang a. |henkhat te chuanChin Hills tan tlang leh tan tlang lo te in Manipur thleng te in an kal ta hlawm a. Heng hnam te hi Paite, Simte, Haokip leh Thado hnam te ni a ngaih a ni (Kipgen 1997:41).  A tam zawk hian chhim thlang lamah tawlh thla zelin Tiddim, Falam leh Haka ah tea wm hmun an khuar a, a \hente phei chu kal zelin Zotung, Matupi leh Mara ho phei chu Mizoram chhim tawp lam thlengin an tawlh thla ta zel a ni (ibid:40). Heng bakah hian Pautu te, Hualngo, Khawlhring, Darlong, Hmar, Thado, Gangte leh an chipui hnamte |iau kanin an kal ta zel a, Mizoram hmun hi an thleng ta ni in an sawi.

            Lusei te, Ralte, Chawngthu, Khiangte, Hauhnar, Chuaungo, Chuauhang, Ngente, Punte, Parte leh midang te pawh Chin Hills-ah hian an lut thla zel a. Thantlang leh Run lui kam velah hian 1250-1400 AD hunlai vel khan an lo cheng tawh a. Thantlang leh Run lui kam chu chhuahsanin Lentang leh |iau hmunah te hian 1450-1700 AD (Lalthangliana 2001:105).  Chin Hills an awmlai hian khuate an din a, hnam bil angin a hran \heuhin an awm hlawm a. Khampat hunlai a khawlian deuh erawh chu ram lei lungin a zirloh avangin an din thei lo a ni. Hemi avang hian a hma ang a inpumkhatna ang kha an nei theihloh phah deuh ni in a lang.

              Rev Liangkhaia (1976:23) khan sakhuana kan neih \anna bul ni in he hun lai hi a sawi a.  Hetih hunlai hi Zo hnahthlak zing a Luseiho lal neih hun ni a sawi a ni bawk.

            A hma kan sawi tawh ang khan Zo hnahthlak hnam hrang hrangte hi thlang tla zelin Chin Hills a\angin Mizoram, Tripura, Assam leh Manipur thlengin an in zarpharh a. Dr. Rinmawia chuan |iau kan  hmasaber te hi Kumzabi 16-na hunlai hawl vel ni in, Hrangkhawl, Darlawng, Biate, Hmar te ninin Mizoram  mai bakah Cachar leh Tripura-ah chhuk zelin a sawi (Lalrimawia 1995:15). Heng mite hi Old-Kuki ti a kan koh te an ni. A \um hnihna hi Thado, Jangshen ni leh in  a kal hmasa ho nawr thla zel tut e ni a ngaih an ni a. Mahse heng hnam te pawh hi Luseiho in an nawr thla ve bawk ni a sawi a ni, an ni hi thlangtla hnu hnung ber a ngaih an ni a (Sangkima 2000:26). Sailo ho bik thlang tlak hun hi kum zabi sawm pasarihna hnulam a\anga kumzabi sawm pakuana hun tir am thleng a ngaih a ni. Khawchhak (Chin Hills) a awm Pawi te hian an khua-ah chhiah an khawn fo avang in Sailo lal pasarih te hian 1740 AD khan Selesih Sangsarih kan tih chu an lo din ta a ni.
            Lusei hnam bik te hi Selesih a\ang chuan pem darh lehin Mizoram hmun hrang hrang an in \aidarh ta hlawm a ni.


Kipgen, Mangkhosat. 1997. Christianity and Mizo Culture, Aizawl: Mizo Theological Conference
Lalrimawia.1995. Mizoram: History and Culture Identity (1890-1947), Guwahati: Spectrum Publications.
Lalthangliana, B. 1977. History of Mizo in Burma. Aizawl
Lalthangliana, B. 2001. Mizo Chanchin, Aizawl:RTM Press
Hall, D.G.E.1981. A history of South-East Asia: St. Martin's Press
Liangkhaia.1976. Mizo Chanchin, Aizawl: Mizo Academy of Letters
Sangkima.2004. Essay  on the History of the Mizos. Guwahati: Spectrum Publication
Zawla, K. 2011. Mizo Pi Pute leh an Thlahte Chanchin. Aizawl: Lalnipuii

[1] He ngaihdan hi tawng/ literature khaikhinna leh Anthropology zirna atang te a keuh thluk a ni.